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Senin, 14 Maret 2011

Definisi Indirect Speech dan Reported Speech Serta Jenisnya

Definisi Indirect Speech dan Reported Speech Serta Jenisnya
Pada dasarnya Indirect Speech dan Reported Speech adalah kalimat tidak langsung, kalimat laporan untuk melaporkan apa kata orang lain dengan kalimat kita sendiri.

Definisi Reported Speech
Reported Speech atau Kalimat Laporan adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk melaporkan apa kata orang lain dengan memasukkannya dalam kalimat yang kita buat sendiri. Kalimat laporan ini sering juga disebut dengan Kalimat Tak Langsung.
Penggunaan
1. Statement
Pada penggunaan jenis kalimat ini, kata sambung yang kita gunakan adalah that. Namun kata ini bisa dipakai atau boleh juga tidak dipakai.
Perhatikan dialog berikut ini:
Alex : I am a student.
Bob : What did Alex say, Andy?
Andy : Alex said that he was a student.
Catatan:
1.     Apa yang diucapkan Andy adalah kalimat tak langsung, karena Andy mengulang apa yang diucapkan Alex kepada Bob.
2.     Karena bersifat pengulangan dan Alex berkata demikian beberapa saat yang lalu (sebelum Bob bertanya) maka Tenses yang digunakan harus dalam bentuk Past.

·         George said," My mother will go to Bali today."
·         George said (that) his mother would go to Bali today.
Catatan:
1.     Perubahan hari dan tempat sangat tergantung pada situasi pada saat berbicara. Artinya dapat saja berganti, namun dapat juga tidak.
2.     Tanda petik tidak lagi digunakan.

·         "I have phoned the police," John said.
·         John said that he had phoned the police.
2. Request/Command
Ada 2 kelompok dalam penggunaan kalimat tidak langsung jenis ini, yaitu:
1.     Positive Request/Command
2.     Negative Request/Command
Mari kita bahas satu persatu:
a. Positive Request/Command
Kalimat tak langsung jenis ini adalah kalimat permintaan atau perintah yang tidak dimulai dengan don't, seperti open the door!, close the window!, be carefull!, dsb. Untuk kalimat jenis ini, kata sambung yang digunakan adalah tosebelum kata kerjanya.
Contoh:
  • "Close the window!", Anton asked.
  • Anton asked me to close the window.

  • Bob said," Be carefull, my son!"
  • Bob asked his son to be carefull.

b. Negative Request/Command
Kalimat tak langsung jenis ini adalah kalimat permintaan yang dimulai dengan don't. Kata sambung yang digunakan adalah not to untuk menggantikan don't.
Contoh:
  • "Don't touch me!", William asked.
  • William asked me not to touch him.

  • Mrs. Hunt said," Don't be lazy, Henry!".
  • Mrs Hunt asked Henry not to be lazy.
3. Questions
Jenis ini juga memiliki 2 kelompok yaitu Yes/No Question dan Wh- Question.
a. Yes/No Questions
Yes/No Question adalah jenis pertanyaan yang membutuhkan jawaban ya atau tidak. Kata sambung yang digunakan adalah whether atau if. Namun yang perlu diingat adalah susunan kalimat dalam kalimat tak langsungnya harus menjadi normal kembali. Artinya setelah kata whether/if, maka harus dimulai dengan Subjek, Predikat, dst. Kita dapat juga menambahkan or not pada kalimat tak langsungnya. Namun kata or not hanya mengiringi kata whetherdan tidak if.
Kata whether lebih sering digunakan daripada if.
Contoh:
  • Mr. Hunt asked," Are you my new secretary?"
  • Mr. Hunt asked the girl whether she was his new secretary or not. - Bentuk I
  • Mr. Hunt asked the girl whether or not she was his new secretary. - Bentuk II
  • Mr. Hunt asked the girl whether she was his new secretary. - Bentuk III

  • "Can you pick me up?", asked Edward.
  • Edward asked if I could pick him up.

b. Wh- Questions
Wh- Question adalah jenis pertanyaan yang tidak dijawab dengan ya atau tidak, melainkan sebuah pernyataan seperi How old are you, Where do you live? dsb.
Kata sambung yang digunakan adalah kata tanya itu sendiri. Susunan setelah kata tanya itu kembali seperti kalimat positif. Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut. Tanda tanya juga harus dihilangkan.
COntoh:
  • "How old are you?", Ahmad wanted to know.
  • Ahmad wanted to know How old I was. (BUKAN How old was I)

  • Andy asked Ted," Where do you live?"
  • Andy asked Ted where he lived.


Pendalaman Materi Tentang Adverbial Clause

Pendalaman Materi Tentang Adverbial Clause
adalah Clause (anak kalimat) yang berfungsi sebagai Adverb, yakni menerangkan kata kerja.
Adverbial Clause biasanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan "arti/maksud" dari Conjunction (kata penghubung yang mendahuluinya).
Jenis-jenis Adverbial Clause antara lain:
1. Clause of Time
Clause yang menunjukkan waktu. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti after, before, no sooner, while, as, dll.
Contoh:
·         Shut the door before you go out.
·         You may begin when(ever) you are ready.
·         While he was walking home, he saw an accident.
·         By the time I arrive, Alex will have left.
·         No sooner had she entered than he gave an order.
2. Clause of Place
Clause yang menunjukkan tempat. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction seperti where, nowhere, anywhere, wherever, dll.
Contoh:
·         They sat down wherever they could find empty seats
·         The guard stood where he was positioned.
·         Where there is a will, there is a way.
·         Where there is poverty, there we find discontent and unrest.
·         Go where you like.
3. Clause of Contrast (or Concession)
Clause yang menunjukkan adanya pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, as the time, dll.
Contoh:
·         As the time you were sleeping, we were working hard.
·         Mary wanted to stop, whereas I wanted to go on.
·         Although it is late, we'll stay a little longer.
·         He is very friendly, even if he is a clever student.

4. Clause of Manner
Clause yang menunjukkan cars bagaimana suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau peristiwa terjadi. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti as, how, like, in that, dll.
Contoh:
·         He did as I told him.
·         You may finish it how you like.
·         They may beat us again, like they did in 1978.
5. Clause of Purpose and Result
Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan maksud/tujuan dan hasil. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan kata penghubung seperti (in order) that, so that, in the hope that, to the end that, lest, in case, dll.
Contoh:
·         They went to the movie early (in order) to find the best seats.
·         She bought a book so (that) she could learn English
·         He is saving his money so that he may take a long vacation.
·         I am working night and day in the hope that I can finish this book soon.
6. Clause of Cause and Effect
Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan sebab dan akibat. Ada beberapa pola membentuk Clause jenis ini. Perhatikan baik-baik.
Contoh:
·         Ryan ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
·         It was so cold yesterday that I didn't want to swim.
·         The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more.
·         The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class.
Contoh:
·         The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team.
·         I had so few job offers that it wasn't difficult to select one.
Contoh:
·         He has invested so much money in the project that he cannot abandon it now.
·         The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat.



Contoh:
·         It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors. ATAU It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.
·         It was such an interesting book that he couldn't put it down. ATAU It was so interesting a book that he couldn't put it down.
Contoh:
·         She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her.
·         They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
·         Perry has had such bad luck that he's decided not to gamble.
·         This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.

Di samping itu, untuk mengungkapkan hubungan cause and effect (sebab dan akibat) dapat digunakan pola lain, yaitu:
1.       Menggunakan Preposition (kata depan) seperti because of, due to, due to the fact that, dll
Contoh:
·         Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home because of the cold weather)
·         Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the cold weather)
·         Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the fact that the weather was cold)
2.       Menggunakan kata penghubung (conjunction) seperti because, since, now, that, as, as long as, inasmuch as
Contoh:
·         Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
·         Since he's not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert.
·         As she had nothing in particular to do, she called up a friend and asked her if she wanted to take in a movie.
·         Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.
3.       Menggunakan transition words seperti therefore, consequently.
Contoh:
·         Alex failed the test because he didn't study.
·         Alex didn't study. Therefore, he failed the test.
·         Alex didn't study. Consequently, he failed the test.


Catatan:


Beberapa Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrases dengan cara:
1)      Menghilangkan subjek dari dependent Clause dan verb (be).
Contoh:
a.       ADVERB CLAUSE      : While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
b.       MODIFYING PHRASE : While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.
2)      Jika dalam Adverb Clause tidak ada be, hilangkanlah subjek dan ubahlah verb dalam Adverb Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing.
Contoh:
a.       ADVERB CLAUSE      : Before I left for work, I ate breakfast.
b.       MODIFYING PHRASE : Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrase jika subjek dari adverbClause dan subjek dari main Clause sama.
Contoh:
1. DAPAT DIRUBAH
·         While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, I fell asleep.
·         While Ann was sitting in class, she fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, Ann fell asleep.
·         Since Mary came to this country, she has made many friends MENJADI Since coming to this country, Mary has made many friends.
2. TIDAK DAPAT DIRUBAH
·         While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.
·         While we were walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us.

7. Clause of Condition
Clause yang menunjukkan adanya persyaratan antara dua kejadian (peristiwa) yang berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunctions seperti if, even if, unless, in the even that, or in even that, in case, provided (that), providing (that), on condition that, if only, suppose (that), supposing (that), dll.

Contoh:
·         If I see him, I will invite him to the party tomorrow.
·         She would forgive her husband everything, if only he would come back to her.
·         Suppose (that) your house burns down, do you have enough insurance to cover such a loss.
·         In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once.
·         The company will agree to arbitration on condition (that) the strike is called off at once.
·         We should be able to do the job for you quickly, provided (that) you give us all the necessary information.